Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease that mainly affects the joint cartilage, as well as the ligaments and the underlying bone. The impairment in these structures causes pain and limitation of joint movements over time. Therefore, it is also defined as an organ failure. Although it was previously thought to be a natural consequence of aging, it is recently thought to result from the interaction of many factors such as joint structure, genetics, local inflammation, mechanical forces and cellular and biomechanical processes. Osteoarthritis is the most common joint disease.
It is associated with aging and usually begins after the age of 40. According to the estimates of the World Health Organization (WHO), roughly 25 percent of adults over the age of 65 all over the world have pain and loss of function related to this disease. Radiologically, it is found in 33 percent of adults and 90 percent of those over the age of 65. While the female to male ratio under the age of 55 is equal, it is more common in females over the age of 55. Hand and knee OA is higher in females over the age of 55, and hip OA is higher in males over the age of 55. Particularly, knees, hips, hands, and cervical and lumbar spines exposed to continuous loading stress for years, are more affected.
In our country, OA ranks seventh in disease burden studies and accounts for 2.9 percent in total disease burden.
The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is established based on clinical and radiological findings. Direct radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography are imaging methods that can be used for this purpose.

Ref: Prevention and Control of Musculoskeletal System Diseases Program of Türkiye (2015-2020).