Hematology Hematology


Hematology is a branch of science that examines blood and blood diseases and deals with the diseases of organs involved in blood production. Physicians specialized in this field are called hematologists. Hematologists are responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of hematological cancers such as lymphoma and leukemia, bone marrow transplants, anemia, and coagulation disorders. Hematology is a branch that requires a multidisciplinary approach, as in other fields of medicine.

Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are cells responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. They have an average life span of 120 days. Their production requires especially protein and amino acids, vitamins B12, B6 and C, folic acid, iron, copper, and cobalt. Erythrocytes in their early stages are called reticulocytes because of their structural differences.

Leukocytes (white blood cells) are cells that fight infections. They have a lifespan of 13-20 days. They are divided into granulocytes and agranulocytes. Granulocytes are divided into neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils due to their structural and functional differences. Agranulocytes are divided into lymphocytes and monocytes.

Neutrophils make up the majority (65%) of leukocytes. They can migrate out of the blood circulation. By phagocytosis, they can destroy pathogens or foreign bodies after they have ingested them.

Eosinophils make up about 5% of leukocytes. They are predominantly found in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. They are involved in parasitic infections or allergic reactions.

Basophils make up about 1% of leukocytes. They can migrate out of the blood circulation. They release histamines.

Lymphocytes are the smallest leukocytes. They make up 25% of leukocytes. They are divided into two types based on their site of development. T lymphocytes attack foreign substances (antigens). B lymphocytes produce antibodies against antigens.

Monocytes are the largest leukocytes. They have a very high phagocytosis (ingestion) property.

Platelets (thrombocytes) are responsible for blood clotting. They are generated by megakaryocytes that break down as they exit the bone marrow.